Kamis, 09 Juli 2015
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paket wisata lombok Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79. This metal dense, soft, malleable, and has high durability. metals are very attractive, bright yellow and the smell of the air or water does not tarnish.Chemically, gold is a transition metal and elements of group 11. Gold jewelry is one of the most reactive chemical element, solid under standard conditions. Therefore, gold jewelry metals often occur in natural elements native free forms, such as nuggets or grains in rocks, in veins and alluvial deposits. Rarely occurs in minerals as gold compounds, such as with tellurium as calaverite, sylvanite and krennerite. tour lombok Gold jewelry is also soluble in alkaline cyanide solution, which has been used in mining. Dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to confirm the presence of gold, giving rise to the term the acid test. Gold hold of attacks by individual acids, but can be dissolved by aqua regia (nitro acid - chloride), so named because it can dissolve gold. A total of 174 100 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history, according to GFMS in 2012. This is roughly equivalent to 5.6 billion troy ounces or, in terms of volume, about 9261 m3, or a cube 21.0 sq m. Consumption of new gold produced world is about: 50% in gold jewelery 40% of investment 10% in industry. paket wisata lombok The gold standard has sometimes monetary policy, but is widely replaced by a fiat currency began in the 1930s. The last gold certificates and gold coins currency issued in the US in 1932. In Europe, most countries abandoned the gold standard with the start of World War I in 1914 and, with a huge war debt, did not return to gold as a medium of exchange.In addition to extensive monetary and symbolic functions, gold has many practical uses in dentistry, electronics, and other fields. High flexibility, toughness, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and electrical conductivity have led to many uses, including electrical wiring, the production of colored - glass, and gold leafing. paket tour lombok Most of the gold of the earth may lie at its core, high density metal has made it sink in there in youth planet. Almost all the gold found is considered to have saved later by meteorites containing elements, the asteroid that formed the crater Vredefort who has been involved in the formation of the largest gold mining regions in the world, the Witwatersrand basin. Characteristics Gold is the most malleable of all metals, one gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, or an ounce into 300 square meters. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to be transparent. Transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold strongly reflects yellow and red. such as semi-transparent sheet is also highly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared (heat radiation) shield visor heat-resistant suit, and in the sun - visors for spacesuits. mutiara lombok Au is the symbol of the Latin: aurum, according to some sources, which means "shining dawn", of Sabine ausum "shining dawn" although according to the definition in the dictionary sense of the word Latin aurum same. This is used when referring to the metal gold disagreement between this definition may be due to the accumulation of evidence from archeology of the original anciency of metal in civilization, referring to the "dawn of civilization", and in this regard has been adopted modern meaning, broke away from the original Latin etymology. harga mutiara Gold is water-soluble mercury at room temperature to form amalgam, and form alloys with other metals at high temperatures. These alloys can be produced to modify the hardness and other metallurgical properties, to control the melting point or to create exotic colors  Gold. Conductor of heat and electricity and reflects the strong infrared radiation. Chemically, it is unaffected by air, moisture and most corrosive reagents, and therefore very suitable for use in coins and jewelry and as a protective coating on, other reactive metals. However, it is not chemically inert. Gold almost insoluble, but can be dissolved in aqua regia or a solution of sodium or potassium cyanide, for example. In addition, gold is very dense, one cubic meter with a weight of 19,300 kg. By comparison, the density of lead is 11 340 kg / m3, and that of the densest element, osmium, is 22 588 ± 15 kg / m3. Color Common colored gold alloys such as rose gold can be made by adding various amounts of copper and silver, as shown in the triangular diagram to the left. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are also important in commercial jewelry produces white gold alloys. Less commonly, the addition of manganese, aluminum, iron, indium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications. Whereas most other pure metals are gray or silvery white, yellow gold. The color is determined by the density of loosely bound (valence) electrons, the electrons oscillate as a collective "plasma" media described in terms of quasiparticle called a plasmon. This oscillation frequency lies in the ultraviolet range for most metals, but fell into the range seen for gold as subtle relativistic effects that affect the orbitals around gold atoms. Similar effects gives a golden hue to metallic cesium. Isotope - harga mutiara Gold has only one stable isotope, 197Au, which is also its only naturally occurring isotope. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized ranging 169-205 atomic mass. This is the most stable with a half 195Au 186.1 days. The most stable is 171Au, which decays with a half-emission proton with 30 microseconds. Most of the gold radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, and β + decay. Exceptions are 195Au, which decays by electron capture, and 196Au, which decays by electron capture most frequently (93%) with β pathway - a small decay (7%). All gold radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β - decay paket wisata lombok At least 32 nuclear isomers have also been characterized, from the atomic mass of 170-200. In that range, only 178Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, and 188Au not have isomers. Gold is the most stable isomer with a half-life of 2.27 days 198m2Au. Gold is the most stable isomer 177m2Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184m1Au has three decay paths: β + decay, isomeric transition, and alpha decay. No other isomer or isotope of gold has three decay paths. Gold is usually formed into bars or bars for use in monetary exchange. Two 20 kr gold coins of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which is based on the gold standard. Coins to the left is Sweden and Denmark .Emas right is already widely used around the world as money, for an efficient indirect exchange (versus barter), and to store wealth in the hoard. For the purpose of exchange, candy producing standard gold bullion coins, bars and other units fixed weight and purity. The first coins of gold struck in Lydia, Asia Minor, around 600 BC. Talent of gold coins used during the period of Greek history both before and during the life of Homer weight between 8:42 and 8.75 grams. from the previous preference in using silver, re-establishing the European Economic minting gold as a currency during the thirteenth century and fourteenth. Bills (which mature into gold coins) and gold certificates (converted into gold coins in the bank issuer) is added to the outstanding shares of gold standard in most of the industrial economy of the 19th century. In preparation for World War I the warring states moved to fractional gold standard, inflating their currencies to finance the war effort. Post-war, the victorious countries, particularly Britain, gradually restored gold convertibility, but the international flow of gold through the draft remains embargoed, international shipping made especially for bilateral trade or pay war reparations. lombok tour After World War II gold was replaced by nominal convertible currency system linked to a fixed exchange rate following the Bretton Woods system. The gold standard and the direct convertibility of currencies to gold was abandoned by the governments of the world, led in 1971 by the US refusal to redeem dollars in gold. Paper currency is currently filling most of the monetary role. Switzerland was the last country to tie its currency with gold, but supported 40% of its value until Switzerland joined the International Monetary Fund in 1999. Central banks continue to keep a portion of their liquid reserves as gold in some form, and the metal exchanges like the London Bullion Market Association is still evident in the gold currency transactions, including delivery contracts in the future. Today, gold mining output decreased. With the sharp economic growth in the 20th century, and the increase of foreign exchange, gold reserves of the world and their trading market has become a small part of all the markets and currency exchange rates fixed to gold has been replaced by a floating price of gold and gold futures contract. Although gold stocks grew by only 1 or 2% per year, very little metal irretrievably consumed. Supplies on the ground will satisfy decades of industrial use and even handyman at the current price. mutiara lombok Gold content alloys is measured in carats (k). Pure gold is designated as 24k. British gold coins intended for circulation from 1526 to 1930 were typically a standard 22k alloy called crown gold, for hardness (American gold coins for circulation after 1837 are slightly lower than the amount of pure gold 0.900, or 21.6 kt). gold gold earrings Although the price of some platinum group metals could be much higher, gold has long been considered the most desirable of precious metals, and its value has been used as the standard for many currencies. Gold has been used as a symbol for purity, value, royalty, and particularly roles that combine these properties. Gold as a sign of wealth and prestige derided by Thomas More in his treatise Utopia. The imaginary island, gold is very abundant which is used to make chains for slaves, tableware, and toilet seats. When ambassadors from other countries arrive, dressed in flashy gold jewelery and badges, the Utopians mistake them for rude employees, paying tribute not to the simplest dress of their party. investment Gold prices (US $ per troy ounce), in US $ and inflation adjusted US $. Main article: Gold as an investment Many holders of gold store in the form of gold coins or bullion as a hedge against inflation or other economic disruptions. However, economist Martin Feldstein not believe gold serves as a hedge against inflation or currency depreciation.  The ISO 4217 currency code is XAU gold. harga mutiara Modern bullion coins for investment or collector does not require good mechanical wear properties, they are usually in 24k pure gold, although the American Gold Eagle and British gold sovereign continue to be printed in the 22k metal in historical tradition, and South Africa Krugerand, first released in 1967 , also 22k.  Special issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin contains the highest purity gold of any bullion coin, at 99.999% or 0.99999, while the popular issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin has a purity of 99.99%. Some 99.99% pure gold coins more available. In 2006, the US Mint began producing the American Buffalo gold bullion coins with a purity of 99.99%. The Australian Kangaroo Gold was first created in 1986 as the Australian Gold Nugget but changed the design upside down in 1989. Other modern coins, including the Vienna Philharmonic bullion coin Austria and China Gold Panda. jewelry Because of the softness of pure (24k) gold, it is usually alloyed with base metals for use in jewelry, change the hardness and ductility, melting point, color and other properties. Alloys with lower carat rating, usually 22k, 18k, 14k or 10k, contain higher percentages of copper or other precious metals, silver, palladium in the alloy. Copper is a base metal that is most commonly used, produce a red color. Eighteen carat gold containing 25% copper is found in antique and Russian jewelry and has a distinct, though not dominant, copper cast, creating rose gold. Fourteen karat gold copper alloy is nearly identical in color of certain bronze alloys, and both can be used to produce police and other badges. Blue gold can be made with an alloy with iron and purple gold can be made with alloys with aluminum, although rarely done except in specialized jewelry. Blue gold is more brittle and therefore more difficult to work with when making jewelry. perhiasan mutiara Fourteen - and eighteen carat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish - yellow and is referred to as green gold. White gold alloys can be made with palladium or nickel. White 18 - carat gold containing 17.3% nickel, 5.5% zinc and 2.2% copper silvery in appearance. Nickel is toxic, however, and the release from nickel white gold is controlled by legislation in Europe. Alternative white gold alloys are available based on palladium, silver and other white metals, but the palladium alloys are more expensive than those using nickel. High-carat white gold alloys are far more resistant to corrosion than either pure silver or silver. Japanese craft mokume -Gane utilizing color contrasts between laminated colored gold alloys to produce decorative wood-grain effects. drug Gold is probably the most ancient medicine is given (apparently by shamanic practitioners) and is known to Dioscorides, the real paradox of toxicology actual substance remains suggests the possibility still serious gaps in the understanding of the physiology action. In medieval times, gold is often seen as beneficial to health, with the conviction that something so rare and beautiful could not be anything but healthy. Even some modern esotericists and forms of alternative medicine assign metallic gold healing powers. Some gold salts have anti - inflammatory and is used as a medicine in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions. Gold-based injections have been explored as a means to help reduce the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis. However, only salts and radioisotopes of gold are of pharmacological value, as the elements (metals) gold inert to all chemicals it encounters in the body. Gold alloys are used in restorative dentistry, especially in tooth restorations, such as crowns and permanent bridges. Little flexibility gold alloy 'facilitate the creation of a superior molar mating surface with other teeth and produces results that are generally more satisfactory than that produced by the creation of porcelain crowns. Use of gold crowns in more prominent teeth such as incisors is favored in some cultures and discouraged in others. Preparation of colloidal gold (gold nanoparticles suspension) in water is very red, and can be made with tightly controlled particle size up to several tens of nanometers by reducing gold chloride with citrate or ascorbate ions. Colloidal gold is used in research applications in the fields of medicine, biology and materials science. Immunogold labeling technique utilizes the ability of gold particles to absorb the protein molecules to their surface. Colloidal gold particles coated with specific antibodies can be used as a probe for the presence and position of antigens on the cell surface of ultrathin sections .At the network seen by electron microscopy, immunogold labels appear round spots like very solid at the position antigen. open trip lombok Gold, or an alloy of gold and palladium, which are applied as conductive coating to biological specimens and materials non - farming such as plastic and glass that can be seen under a scanning electron microscope. Layer, which is usually applied by sputtering with argon plasma, has three roles in this application. Very high electrical conductivity of gold flowing electrical charge to earth, and very high density provides stopping power for electrons in the electron beam, helping to limit the depth at which the electron beam penetrates the specimen. It improves definition of the position and the specimen surface topography and improve the spatial resolution of the image. Gold also produces a high output of secondary electrons when irradiated by an electron beam, and low-energy electrons are the source of the most commonly used signal used in electron microscopy. Trend gold production time At the end of 2009, it is estimated that all the gold ever mined 165,000 tons. This can be represented by a cube with edge length of about 20:28 meters. At $ 1,600 per troy ounce, 165,000 metric tons of gold will have a value of $ 8.5 trillion. World production for 2011 was 2,700 tonnes, compared with 2,260 tonnes for 2008 Since the 1880s, South Africa has been the source for most of the world's gold supply, with about 50% of all gold ever produced coming from South Africa , Production in 1970 accounted for 79% of the world supply, producing about 1,480 tons. In 2007 China (with 276 tonnes) following South Africa as the largest gold producer in the world, the first time since 1905 that South Africa has not been the greatest. gold mine perhiasan mutiaraCity of Johannesburg is situated in South Africa was established as a result of the Witwatersrand Gold Rush which resulted in the discovery of some of the world's largest gold deposits ever. Gold fields located within the basin in the Free State and Gauteng provinces are extensive in strike and dip requiring some of the deepest mines in the world, with Savuka mine and tautona mine which is currently the world's deepest gold mine at 3777 m. Second Boer War of 1899-1901 between the British Empire and the Afrikaner Boer at least in part on the rights and ownership of gold miners in South Africa. Other major producers are the United States, Australia, Russia, and Peru, as well as, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Mali, Indonesia and Uzbekistan. Mines in South Dakota and Nevada supply two-thirds of gold used in the United States. In South America, the controversial Pascua Lama project aimed at the exploitation of rich fields in the high mountains of the Atacama Desert, on the border between Chile and Argentina. Today about a quarter of the world's gold production is estimated to come from the people or small-scale mining. gold search During the 19th century, gold rushes occurred whenever large gold deposits found. The first documented discovery of gold in the United States are in the Reed Gold Mine near Georgeville, North Carolina in 1803. The first major gold strike in the United States occurred in a small town called northern Georgia Dahlonega .Next gold rushes occurred in California, Colorado, Black Hills, Otago in New Zealand, Australia, Witwatersrand in South Africa, and the Klondike in Canada. jual mutiara bioremediation gold An example of the Aspergillus niger fungus found growing on gold mining solution, and found to contain metal cyano complexes, such as gold, silver, iron, copper and zinc. Fungi also play a role in the solubilization of heavy metal sulfides. Gold extraction The most economical gold extraction in large, easily mined deposits. Ore grades as little as 0.5 mg / kg (0.5 parts per million, ppm) can be economical. Typical ore in an open pit mine is 1-5 mg / kg (1-5 ppm), ore grades in underground or hard rock mines are usually at least 3 mg / kg (3 ppm). Because the ore grade of 30 mg / kg (30 ppm) are usually needed before gold visible to the naked eye, in most gold mines gold is not visible. Gold mining and extraction costs an average of about US $ 317 / oz in 2007, but this can vary greatly depending on the type of mining and ore quality, global mine production amounted to 2,471.1 tons gold refinery After initial production, gold is often subsequently refined by industry Wohlwill process based on the electrolysis process or by Miller, ie chlorination in the melt. The Wohlwill process results in higher purity, but it is more complex and is only applied in small-scale installations. Another method for testing and purifying smaller amounts of gold include parting and inquartation and cupellation, or purification methods based on the dissolution of gold in aqua regia Synthesis of other elements Gold synthesized from mercury by neutron bombardment in 1941, but the gold isotope produced all radioactive. In 1924, a Japanese physicist, Hantaro Nagaoka, accomplished the same feat. The current gold can be produced in a nuclear reactor with either irradiation of platinum or mercury. Only 196Hg mercury isotopes, which occur with a frequency of 0.15% natural mercury, can be converted into gold by capturing neutrons, and electrons following the capture - decay to 197Au with slow neutrons. Other mercury isotopes converted when irradiated with slow neutrons each other, or form a beta of mercury isotopes decay into thallium. Using fast neutrons, mercury isotopes 198Hg, which make up 9.97% of the mercury naturally, can be converted by splitting off neutrons and become 197Hg, which then destroyed the stable gold. This reaction, however, has a smaller cross-section activation and feasible only with reactor un - managed .It is also possible to remove some of the neutrons with very high energy into other mercury isotopes to form 197Hg. However, the high energy neutrons can be produced only by a particle accelerator. gold consumption - mutiara lombok Consumption of gold produced in the world is about 50% in jewelry, 40% of the investment, and 10% in industry. India is the world's largest consumer of gold, as Indians buy about 25% of the world's gold, buy about 800 tons of gold every year, mostly for jewelry. India is also the largest importer of gold, in 2008, India imported about 400 tons of gold Indian households hold 18,000 tonnes of gold which represents 11% of the global stock and worth more than $ 950 billion Pollution Gold production attributed to contribute to dangerous pollution. ores, generally containing less than one ppm gold metal, is ground and mixed with sodium cyanide or mercury reacts with the gold in the ore for gold separation. Cyanide is a highly toxic chemical, which can kill living beings when exposed to minute amounts. Many cyanide spill from a gold mine have occurred in developed countries and developing countries, killing marine life in the long stretches of the river are affected. Environmentalists consider this event an environmental disaster. When mercury is used in the production of gold, the amount of mercury compounds minutes reach bodies of water, leading to heavy metal contamination. Mercury can then enter into the human food chain in the form of methylmercury. Mercury poisoning in humans caused incurable damage to brain function and severe retardation. Thirty tonnes of ore were used discarded as waste to produce a 1 ounce (28 g) gold. waste dumps gold ore is the source of many heavy elements such as cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, arsenic, selenium and mercury. When the bearing sulfide minerals in the ore disposal is exposed to air and water, sulfide turns into sulfuric acid which in turn dissolves the heavy metals to facilitate their journey into surface water and groundwater. This process is called acid mine drainage. The gold ore dumps long-term, highly hazardous wastes second only to nuclear waste disposal. Gold extraction is also very energy-intensive industry, extracting ore from the mines in and grind large amounts of ore for further chemical extraction requires with 25 kW · h of electricity required per gram of gold produced. chemistry Pure metals (elements) gold is non-toxic and non-irritating when ingested  and is sometimes used as a food decoration in the form of gold leaf. Metallic gold is also a component of alcoholic beverages Goldschlager, Gold Strike, and Goldwasser. Metallic gold is approved as a food additive in the EU (E175 in the Codex Alimentarius). Although gold ion-toxic, metallic gold acceptance as a food additive is due to the relative chemical inertness, and robustness to be corroded or transformed into soluble salts (gold compounds) with a variety of chemical processes known to be encountered in the human body. Soluble compounds (gold salts) such as gold chloride is toxic to the liver and kidneys. Common cyanide salts of gold such as potassium gold cyanide, used in gold electroplating, toxic by both cyanide and gold content. There are rare cases lethal gold poisoning from potassium gold cyanide. Gold toxicity can be corrected with chelation therapy with agents such as dimercaprol. Gold metal as an allergen of the Year in 2001 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. Gold contact allergies affect mostly women. However, gold is relatively non contact allergens - strong, compared to metals like nickel. gold price History of gold prices in 1960-2011 Gold is currently valued at approximately US $ 62,000 per kilogram. so do you think there's gold? As with other precious metals, gold is measured by troy weight and by grams. When alloyed with other metals the term carat or karat is used to indicate the purity of gold, with 24 carat into pure gold and lower ratings proportionally less. Purity of gold bars or coins can also be expressed as a decimal figure ranging from 0 to 1, known as the millesimal fineness, such as 0.995 which is very pure. history The price of gold is determined through trading gold and derivatives markets, but a procedure known as the Gold Fixing in London, originating in September 1919, provides a daily benchmark price for the industry. Determination of the afternoon was introduced in 1968 to provide a price when US markets open. Historically gold currency is widely used as a currency, when paper money was introduced, usually a receipt redeemable for gold coin or bullion. In a monetary system known as the gold standard, a certain weight of gold was given the name of the currency unit. For the long term, the United States government set the value of the US dollar so that one troy ounce is equivalent to $ 20.67 ($ 664.56 / kg), but in 1934 the dollar was devalued to $ 35.00 a troy ounce ($ 1125.27 / kg). In 1961, it became difficult to maintain this price, and the pool of US and European banks agreed to manipulate the market to prevent further currency devaluation against increased gold demand. On March 17, 1968, economic circumstances caused the collapse of the gold pool, and a two-tier pricing scheme was set up where the gold is still used to settle international accounts at the old $ 35.00 per troy ounce ($ 1.13 / g), but the price of gold in private market is allowed to fluctuate, the price of a two-tier system was abandoned in 1975 when the price of gold left to find the level of the free market. Central banks still hold historical gold reserves as a store of value although the level has generally been declining. The largest gold depository in the world is that of the US Federal Reserve Bank in New York, which holds about 3% of the gold ever mined, as well as same-laden US Bullion Depository at Fort Knox. In 2005 the World Gold Council estimated total global gold supply to be 3,859 tonnes and demand to be 3,754 tonnes, giving a surplus of 105 tonnes. Some time around 1970 prices began to trend to further increase, and since 1968 the price of gold has ranged widely, from a high of $ 850 / oz ($ 27.300 / kg) on 21 January 1980, to a low of $ 252.90 / oz ($ 8.131 / kg) on June 21, 1999 (London Gold Fixing). 1999-2001 period marked the "Brown Bottom" after a 20-year bear market. Prices increased rapidly from 2001, but in 1980 did not exceed the height until January 3, 2008 when a new maximum of $ 865.35 per troy ounce set. Another record price was established on March 17, 2008 at $ 1,023.50 / oz ($ 32.900 / kg). At the end of 2009, the gold market experienced a new upward momentum due to increased demand and a weaker US dollar. On December 2, 2009, gold reached a new closing high of $ 1,217.23. Gold continued to rally hitting new highs in May 2010 after the debt crisis of the European Union to encourage further purchases of gold as a safe asset. No dated March 1, 2011, gold reached a new all-time high of $ 1,432.57, based on investor concerns about the ongoing unrest in North Africa and the Middle East. Since April 2001, the gold price has more than quintupled in value against the US dollar, hitting a new all-time high of $ 1,913.50 on August 23, 2011, prompting speculation that this long secular bear market has ended and a bull market has returned. well now it's time gold jewelery shopping in the store gold and pearl jewelry chili miss joaquim pearls.